By Steven L. Gay, Jacob Benesty
158 2. Wiener Filtering 159 three. Speech Enhancement via Short-Time Spectral amendment three. 1 Short-Time Fourier research and Synthesis 159 a hundred and sixty three. 2 Short-Time Wiener filter out 161 three. three energy Subtraction three. four value Subtraction 162 three. five Parametric Wiener Filtering 163 164 three. 6 assessment and dialogue Averaging concepts for Envelope Estimation 169 four. 169 four. 1 relocating typical one hundred seventy four. 2 Single-Pole Recursion one hundred seventy four. three Two-Sided Single-Pole Recursion four. four Nonlinear information Processing 171 five. instance Implementation 172 five. 1 Subband filter out financial institution structure 172 173 five. 2 A-Posteriori-SNR Voice job Detector five. three instance one hundred seventy five 6. end a hundred seventy five half IV Microphone Arrays 10 Superdirectional Microphone Arrays 181 Gary W. Elko 1. advent 181 2. Differential Microphone Arrays 182 three. Array Directional achieve 192 four. optimum Arrays for Spherically Isotropic Fields 193 four. 1 greatest achieve for Omnidirectional Microphones 193 four. 2 greatest Directivity Index for Differential Microphones 195 four. three Maximimum Front-to-Back Ratio 197 four. four minimal top Directional reaction two hundred four. five Beamwidth 201 five. layout Examples 201 five. 1 First-Order Designs 202 five. 2 Second-Order Designs 207 five. three Third-Order Designs 216 five. four Higher-Order designs 221 6. optimum Arrays for Cylindrically Isotropic Fields 222 6. 1 greatest achieve for Omnidirectional Microphones 222 6. 2 optimum Weights for optimum Directional achieve 224 6. three resolution for optimum Weights for optimum Front-to-Back Ratio for Cylindrical Noise 225 7. Sensitivity to Microphone Mismatch and Noise 230 8.
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Extra resources for Acoustic Signal Processing for Telecommunication
75) En Solving for [ ~n ] 1 t . 78) The quantities, Ea,n, Eb,n, an, and b n can be calculated efficiently (complexity ION) using a sliding windowed FRLS algorithm (see the Appendix). Fast Affine Projections The relationship between shown that En and En-I 37 is now investigated. 80) THE FAP ALGORITHM The FAP algorithm with regularization and relaxation is as follows: 1. Initialization: Ea,o = Eb,O = /) and ao = [1, O]t, bo = [0, 1]1, 2. Use sliding windowed FRLS to update Ea,n, Eb,n, an, and b n, 9.
9] M. M. Sondhi, "An adaptive echo canceler," Bell Syst. Tech. , vol. 46, pp. 497-511, Mar. 1967.  F. K. Becker and H. R. Rudin, "Application of automatic transversal filters to the problem of echo suppression," Bell Syst. Tech. , vol. 45, pp. 1847-1850, 1966.  W. F. Clemency and W. D. , "Functional design of a voice-switched speakerphone," Bell Syst. Tech. , vol. XL, pp. 649-668, May 1961.  J. P. A. Lochner and 1. F. Burger, ''The intelligibility of speech under reverberant conditions," Acustica, vol.
Unfortunately MAP requires a priori knowledge of the probabilities of the inputs which are not available. A related method is the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion which selects the set of inputs that maximize the probability of obtaining the observed outputs given the trial set of inputs. ML is derived by expanding MAP using Baye's rule and simply ignoring the a priori input probabilities. Hence, ML's one advantage over MAP - it does not require foreknowledge of the input probabilities. ML and MAP are equivalent when the input probability density function is uniform.
Acoustic Signal Processing for Telecommunication by Steven L. Gay, Jacob Benesty