By Jürgen Meyer, Uwe Hansen
This vintage reference on musical acoustics and function perform starts off with a short creation to the basics of acoustics and the iteration of musical sounds. It then discusses the details of the sounds made by way of the entire general tools in a latest orchestra in addition to the human voice, the way the sounds made through those tools are dispersed and the way the room into which they're projected impacts the sounds.
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Additional info for Acoustics and the performance of music
1 Introducing the Model Every single tone which reaches our ear in the course of a musical work, contains a fullness of information. We perceive a pitch, loudness and tone color. We can also make statements about the steadiness of the pitch, or if the tone is enlivened with vibrato. Furthermore we notice changes and fluctuations in loudness as well as the nature of the tone entrance, be it attacked softly or sharply; similarly we can draw conclusions about the decay of the note. All these details give a characteristic tone picture from which we extract the musical content and also recognize what instrument generated the tone.
In particular, sounds exist, for which odd numbered partials are more strongly developed than the even partials. A typical example of this is given by the gedackt organ pipes. For the clarinet in the low register, this type of spectrum also dominates. These lead to a covered and occasionally hollow tone, in this the absence of the octave components (2nd and 4th partials) also supports the dark timbre. A similar hollow tone effect can also be achieved synthetically by appropriate instrumentation, as the score example 1 from the Bolero by M.
The overtone content accordingly changes in the decay in such a way that the tone color becomes increasingly darker and softer. As an alternative to this spectral representation, the decay time can also be given as a numerical value, which only gives the duration of audibility without frequency specification. The pizzicato tone of the pictured example would have a decay time of about 900 ms. In order to obtain an objective measure for the slope of the level decrease, and thus for the tonal characteristic of the relevant instrument, often the time for which the level drops by 60 dB relative to its original value is determined, and this quantity is designated as the reverberation time -again in analogy with room acoustics- (Meyer and Lottermoser, 1961; Plenge and Schwarz, 1967).
Acoustics and the performance of music by Jürgen Meyer, Uwe Hansen