By Cesare Rossi
This booklet describes innovations and designs of historical engineers which are the precursors of the current. The a long time ordinarily diversity from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a few exceptions from ahead of and after this era. As for the very old ones, the publication describes innovations (documented by way of archaeological unearths frequently from Pompei, Ercolano and Stabia) that ordinarily are little or no recognized and infrequently now not recognized in any respect. a few innovations are within the army box. it's because (unfortunately) many innovations and technological thoughts were conceived ranging from army functions. The ebook is split into 5 elements. the 1st 4 components pertain to certain fields and current innovations mostly conceived as much as the overdue Roman Empire. innovations which are consultant of the engineering genius of the ancients and which may be regarded as milestones, every one of their respective box. The 5th half refers to fields of engineering (such as textiles and automation) within which vital strategies have been conceived additionally in additional fresh centuries. for every of the innovations offered, even the traditional ones of many centuries earlier, the authors offer 3 components of study and reference: • Written files (the classics) • Iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) • Archaeological findings.
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Additional info for Ancient Engineers' Inventions - Precursors of the Present
1 are shown some sundials found at Pompei. 30 3 Measuring time Fig. 1 Sundials found at Pompei. Description of the working principle of the sundial requires astronomical knowledge that is beyond the scope of this book, hence we will confine ourselves to simple descriptions of the fundamental types of sundials. 1 Fixed sundials These sundials are mounted on a fixed structure and can be roughly divided in three types as follows. 1 Equatorial sundials The simplest type of sundial consists of a plane parallel to the equator of the earth and oriented toward the north and a gnomon that is parallel to the earth’s axis.
In each of the slots are located some buttons that can slide in the slot itself. All the long slots (in the lower part of the figure) have four buttons except for the second from right that has five buttons. The short slots (in the upper part of the figure) have only one button that indicates the number five. Each of the buttons in the first seven slots starting from the left has a numeric meaning reported below in the figure; the eighth slot indicates the ounces and the ninth slot indicates a fraction of ounces: half (S semis), a quarter (⊃ silicus) and 1/12 (Z sextula).
M. m. m. m. m. m. m. m. m. m. The oldest types of devices for measuring time are represented by sundials and water clocks, hence we will present some examples of these. 1 The sundial The sundial was the first device used to measure (or to visualize) the hours of the day. It was based on the apparent motion of the sun and served its purpose for thousands of years. 1 The sundial 29 of a thin rod or a sharp and straight edge, called the gnomon or the style, fitted on a surface; on the latter some lines are traced and each of these lines indicates an hour.
Ancient Engineers' Inventions - Precursors of the Present by Cesare Rossi