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091806 Copyright c 2002 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved THE B7 FAMILY OF LIGANDS AND ITS RECEPTORS: Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20:29-53. org by HINARI on 09/01/07. For personal use only. New Pathways for Costimulation and Inhibition of Immune Responses Beatriz M. com Key Words ICOS, PD-1, PD-L, T cell activation, tolerance ■ Abstract T cell activation is dependent upon signals delivered through the antigen-specific T cell receptor and accessory receptors on the T cell. A primary costimulatory signal is delivered through the CD28 receptor after engagement of its ligands, B7-1 (CD80) or B7-2 (CD86).

24. 25. 26. SGM LaTeX2e(2001/05/10) P1: GSR JANEWAY of CD8 naive or memory T cells. Science 276:2057–62 Ignatowicz L, Kappler J, Marrack P. 1996. The repertoire of T cells shaped by a single MHC/peptide ligand. Cell 84:521–29 Hunt DF, Michel H, Dickinson TA, Shabanowitz J, Cox AL, Sakaguchi K, Appella E, Grey HM, Sette A. 1992. Peptides presented to the immune system by the murine class II major histocompatibility complex molecule I-Ad. Science 256:1817–20 Alam SM, Davies GM, Lin CM, Zal T, Nasholds W, Jameson SC, Hogquist KA, Gascoigne NR, Travers PJ.

Human ICOS is a 55–60 kDa, disulfide-linked, glycosylated homodimer when isolated from activated human T cells. The protein has two putative N-glycosylation sites, and the unglycosylated monomer has a molecular weight of about 20 kDa (16). Mouse ICOS is a 47–57 kDa, disulfide-linked, N-glycosylated homodimer (17). Rat ICOS is highly homologous (85% identity) to the mouse protein (18). In rat, a differentially spliced form of ICOS containing a longer cytoplasmic tail has been identified, which suggests that additional forms may exist in human and mouse (18).

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Annual Review of Immunology Volume 20 2002 by Annual Reviews

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